ACT OF CONGRESS OF JULY FIRST, NINETEEN HUNDRED AND TWO, “THE PHILIPPINE BILL.” AN ACT TEMPORARILY TO PROVIDE FOR THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE AFFAIRS OF CIVIL GOVERNMENT IN THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS, AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES.
Section 1. That the action of the President of the United States in creating the Philippine Commission and authorizing said Commission to exercise the powers of government to the extent and in the manner and form and subject to the regulation and control set forth in the instructions of the President to the Philippine Commission, dated April seventh, nineteen hundred, and in creating the offices of Civil Governor and Vice-Governor of the Philippine Islands, and authorizing said Civil Governor and Vice-Governor to exercise the powers of government to the extent and in the manner and form set forth in the Executive order dated June twenty-first, nineteen hundred and one, and is establishing four Executive Departments of government in said Islands as set forth in the Act of the Philippine Commission entitled “An Act providing an organization for the Departments of the Interior, of Commerce and Police, of Finance and Justice, and of Public Instruction,” enacted September sixth, nineteen hundred and one, is hereby approved, ratified, and confirmed, and until otherwise provided by law the said Islands shall continue to be governed as thereby and herein provided, and all laws passed hereafter by the Philippine Commission shall have an enacting clause as follows. “By authority of the United States, be it enacted by the Philippine Commission.” The provisions of section eighteen hundred and ninety-one of the Revised Statutes of eighteen hundred and seventy eight shall not apply to the Philippine Islands.Future appointments of Civil Governor, Vice-Governor, members of said Commission and heads of Executive Departments shall be made by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate.
Section 2. That the action of the President of the United States heretofore taken by virtue of the authority vested in him as Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy, as set forth in his order of July twelfth, eighteen hundred and ninety-eight, whereby a land of duties and taxes as set forth by said order was to be levied and collected at all ports and places in the Philippine Islands upon passing into the occupation and possession of the forces of the United States, together with the subsequent amendments of said order, are hereby approved, ratified, and confirmed, and the actions of the authorities of the Government of the Philippine Islands taken in accordance with the provisions of said order and subsequent amendments, are hereby approved: Provided, That nothing contained in this section shall be held to amend or repeal an Act entitled “An Act temporarily to provide revenue for the Philippine Islands, and for other purposes,” approved March eighth, nineteen hundred and two.
Section 3. That the President of the United States, during such time as and whenever the sovereignty and authority of the United States encounter armed resistance in the Philippine Islands, until otherwise provided by Congress, shall continue to regulate and control commercial intercourse with and within said Islands by such general rules and regulations as he, in his discretion, may deem more conducive to the public interests and the general welfare.
Section 4. That all inhabitants of the Philippine Islands continuing to reside therein who were Spanish subjects on the eleventh day of April, eighteen hundred and ninety-nine, and then resided in the Philippine Islands, and their children born subsequent thereto, shall be deemed and held to be citizens of the Philippine Islands and as such entitled to the protection of the United States, except such as shall have elected to preserve their allegiance to the Crown of Spain in accordance with the provisions of the treaty of peace between the United States and Spain signed at Paris December tenth, eighteen hundred and ninety-eight.
BILL OF RIGHTS
Section 5. That no law shall be enacted in said Islands which shall deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law, or deny to any person therein the equal protection of the laws.That in all criminal prosecutions the accused shall enjoy the right to be heard by himself and counsel, to demand the nature and cause of the accusation against him, to have a speedy and public trial, to meet the witnesses face to face, and to have compulsory process to compel the attendance of witnesses in his behalf.
That no person shall be held to answer for a criminal offense without due process of law; and no person for the same offense shall be twice put in jeopardy of punishment, nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself.
That all persons shall before conviction be bailable by sufficient sureties, except for capital offenses.
That no law impairing the obligation of contracts shall be enacted.
That no person shall be imprisoned for debt.
That the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in cases of rebellion, insurrection, or invasion the public safety may require it, in either of which events the same may be suspended by the President, or by the Governor, with the approval of the Philippine Commission, wherever during such period the necessity for such suspension shall exist.
That no ex post facto law or bill of attainder shall be enacted.
That no law granting a title of nobility shall be enacted, and no person holding any office of profit or trust in said Islands, shall without the consent of the Congress of the United States, accept any present, emolument, office, or title of any kind whatever from any king, queen, prince, or foreign State.
That excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishment inflicted.
That the right to be secure against unreasonable searches and seizures shall not be violated.
That neither slavery, nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist in said Islands.
That no law shall be passed abridging the freedom of speech or of the press, or the right of the people peaceably to assemble and petition the Government for redress of grievances.
That no law shall be made respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise thereof, and that the free exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship, without discrimination or preference, shall forever be allowed.
That no money shall be paid out of the Treasury except in pursuance of an appropriation by law.
That the rule of taxation in said Islands shall be uniform.
That no private or local bill which may be enacted into law shall embrace more than one subject, and that subject shall be expressed in the title of the bill.
That no warrant shall issue but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched and the person or things to be seized.
That all money collected on any tax levied or assessed for a special purpose shall be treated as a special fund in the Treasury and paid out for such purpose only.
Section 6. That whenever the existing insurrection in the Philippine Islands shall have ceased and a condition of general and complete peace shall have been established therein and the fact shall be certified to the President by the Philippine Commission, the President, upon being satisfied thereof, shall order a census of the Philippine Islands to be taken by said Philippine Commission; such census in its inquiries relating to the population shall take and make so far as practicable full report for all the inhabitants, of name, age, sex, race, or tribe, whether native or foreign born, literacy in Spanish native dialect, or language, or in English, school attendance, ownership of homes, industrial and social statistics, and such other information separately for each island, each province, and municipality, or other civil division, as the President and said Commission may deem necessary: Provided, That the President may, upon the request of said Commission, in his discretion, employ the service of the Census Bureau in compiling and promulgating the statistical information above provided for, and may commit to such Bureau any part or portion of such labor as to him may seem wise.
Section 7. That two years after the completion and publication of the census, in case such condition of general and complete peace with recognition of the authority of the United States shall have continued in the territory of said Islands not inhabited by Moros or other non-Christian tribes and such facts shall have been certified to the President by the Philippine Commission, the President upon being satisfied thereof shall direct Commission to call, and the Commission shall call, a general election for the choice of delegates to a popular assembly of the people of said territory in the Philippine Islands, which shall be known as the Philippine Assembly. After said Assembly shall have convened and organized, all the legislative power heretofore conferred on the Philippine Commission in all that part of said Islands not inhabited by Moros or other non-Christian tribes shall be vested in a Legislature consisting of two Houses — the Philippine Commission and the Philippine Assembly. Said Assembly shall consist of not less than fifty nor more than one hundred members to be apportioned by said Commission among the provinces as nearly as practicable according to population: Provided, That no province shall have less than one member: And provided further, That provinces entitled by population to more than one member may be divided into such convenient district as the said Commission may deem best.Public notice of such division shall be given at least ninety days prior to such election, and the election shall be held under rules and regulations to be prescribed by law. The qualification of electors of such election shall be the same as is now provided by law in case of electors in municipal elections. The members of Assembly shall hold office for two years from the first day of January next following their election, and their successors shall be chosen by the people every second year thereafter. No person shall be eligible to such election who is not a qualified elector of the election district in which he may be chosen, owing allegiance to the United States and twenty-five years of age.
The Legislature shall hold annual sessions, commencing on the first Monday of February in each year and continuing not exceeding ninety days thereafter (Sundays and holidays not included); Provided, That the first meeting of the Legislature shall be held upon the call of the Governor within ninety days after the first election: And provided further, That if at the termination of any session the appropriations necessary for the support of Government shall not have been made, an amount equal to the sums appropriated in the last appropriation bills for such purposes shall be deemed to be appropriated; and until the Legislature shall act in such behalf the Treasurer may, with the advice of the Governor, make the payments necessary for the purposes aforesaid.
The Legislature may be called in special session at any time by the Civil Governor for general legislation, or for action on such specific subjects as he may designate. No special session shall continue longer than thirty days, exclusive of Sundays.
The Assembly shall be the judge of the elections, returns, and qualifications of its members. A majority shall constitute a quorum to do business, but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day and may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members. It shall choose its Speaker and other officers, and the salaries of its members and officers shall be fixed by law. It may determine the rule of its proceedings, punish its members for disorderly behavior, and with the concurrence of two-thirds expel a member. It shall keep a journal of its proceedings, which shall be published, and the yeas and nays of the members on any question shall, on the demand of one-fifth of those present, be entered on the journal.
Section 8. That at the same time with the first meeting of the Philippine Legislature, and biennially thereafter, there shall be chosen by said Legislature, each House voting separately, two resident Commissioners to the United States, who shall be entitled to an official recognition as such by all departments upon presentation to the President of a certificate of election by the Civil Governor of said Islands, and each of whom shall be entitled to a salary payable monthly by the United States at the rate of five thousand dollars per annum, and two thousand dollars additional to cover all expenses: Provided, That no person shall be eligible to such election who is not a qualified elector of said Islands, owing allegiance to the United States, and who is not thirty years of age.
Section 9. That the Supreme Court and the Courts of First Instance of the Philippine Islands shall possess and exercise jurisdiction as heretofore provided and such additional jurisdiction as shall hereafter be prescribed by the Government of said Islands, subject to the power of said Government to change the practice and method of procedure. The municipal courts of said Islands shall possess and exercise jurisdiction as heretofore provided by the Philippine Commission, subject in all matters to such alteration and amendment as may be hereafter enacted by law; and the Chief Justice and Associate Justices of the Supreme Court shall hereafter be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, and shall receive the compensation heretofore prescribed by the Commission until otherwise provided by Congress. The judges of the Court of First Instance shall be appointed by the Civil Governor, by and with the advice and consent of the Philippine Commission: Provided, That the admiralty jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and Courts of First Instance shall not be changed except by Act of Congress.
Section 10. That the Supreme Court of the United States shall have jurisdiction to review, revise, reverse, modify, or affirm the final judgments and decrees of the Supreme Court of the Philippine Islands in all actions, cases, causes, and proceedings now pending therein or hereafter determined thereby in which the Constitution or any statute, treaty, title, right, or privilege of the United States is involved, or in causes in which the value in controversy exceeds twenty-five thousand dollars, or in which the title or possession of real estate exceeding in value the sum of twenty-five thousand dollars, to be ascertained by the oath of either party or of other competent witnesses, is involved or brought in question; and such final judgments or decrees may and can be reviewed, revised, reversed, modified, or affirmed by said Supreme Court of the United States on appeal or writ of error by the party aggrieved, in the same manner, under the same regulations, and by the same procedure, as far as applicable, as the final judgments and decrees of the Circuit Courts of the United States.
Section 11. That the Government of the Philippine Islands is hereby authorized to provide for the needs of commerce by improving the harbors and navigable waters of said Islands and to construct and maintain in said navigable waters and upon the shore adjacent thereto bonded warehouses, wharves, piers, light-houses, signal and life-saving stations, buoys, and like instruments of commerce, and to adopt and enforce regulations in regard thereto, including bonded warehouses wherein articles not intended to be imported into said Islands nor mingled with the property therein, but brought into a port of said Islands for reshipment to another country may be deposited in bond and reshipped to another country without the payment of customs duties or charges.
Section 12. That all the property and rights which may have been acquired in the Philippine Islands by the United States under the treaty of peace with Spain, signed December tenth, eighteen hundred and ninety-eight, except such land or other property as shall be designated by the President of the United States for military and other reservations of the Government of the United States, are hereby placed under the control of the Government of said Islands, to be administered for the benefit of the inhabitants thereof, except as provided in this Act.
Section 13. That the Government of the Philippine Islands, subject to the provisions of this Act and except as herein provided, shall classify according to its agricultural character and productiveness, and shall immediately make rules and regulations for the lease, sale, or other disposition of the public lands other than timber or mineral lands, but such rules and regulations shall not go into effect or have the force of law until they have received the approval of the President, and when approved by the President they shall be submitted by him to Congress at the beginning of the next ensuing session thereof and unless disapproved or amended by Congress at said session they shall at the close of such period have the force and effect of law in the Philippine Islands: Provided, That a single homestead entry shall not exceed sixteen hectares in extent.
Section 14. That the Government of the Philippine Islands is hereby authorized and empowered to enact rules and regulations and to prescribe terms and conditions to enable persons to perfect their title to public lands in said Islands, who, prior to the transfer of sovereignty from Spain to the United States, had fulfilled all or some of the conditions required by the Spanish laws and royal decrees of the Kingdom of Spain for the acquisition of legal title thereto, yet failed to secure conveyance of title; and the Philippine Commission is authorized to issue patents, without compensation, to any native of said Islands, conveying title to any tract of land not more than sixteen hectares in extent, which were public lands and had been actually occupied by such native or his ancestors prior to and on the thirteenth of August, eighteen hundred and ninety-eight.
Section 15. That the Government of the Philippine Islands is hereby authorized and empowered, on such terms as it may prescribe, by general legislation, to provide for the granting or sale and conveyance to actual occupants and settlers and other citizens of said Islands such parts and portions of the public domain, other than timber and mineral lands, of the United States in said Islands as it may deem wise, not exceeding sixteen hectares to any one person and for the sale and conveyance of not more than one thousand and twenty-four hectares to any corporation or association of persons: Provided, That the grant or sale of such lands, whether the purchase price be paid at once or in partial payments, shall be conditioned upon actual and continued occupancy, improvement, and cultivation of the premises sold for a period of not less than five years, during which time the purchaser or grantee can not alienate or encumber said land or the title thereto; but such restriction shall not apply to transfers of rights and title of inheritance under the laws for the distribution of the estates of decedents.
Section 16. That in granting or selling any part of the public domain under the provisions of the last preceding section, preference in all cases shall be given to actual occupants and settlers; and such public lands of the United States in the actual possession or occupancy of any native of the Philippine Islands shall not be sold by said Government to any other person without the consent thereto of said prior occupant or settler first had and obtained: Provided, That the prior right hereby secured to an occupant of land, who can show no other proof of title than possession, shall not apply to more than sixteen hectares in any one tract.
Section 17. That timber, trees, forests, and forest products on lands leased or demised by the Government of the Philippine Islands under the provisions of this Act shall not be cut, destroyed, removed, or appropriated except by special permission of said Government and under such regulations as it may prescribe.All moneys obtained from lease or sale of any portion of the public domain or from licenses to cut timber by the Government of the Philippine Islands shall be covered into the Insular Treasury and be subject only to appropriation for insular purposes according to law.
Section 18. That the forest laws and regulations now in force in the Philippine Islands, with such modifications and amendments as may be made by the Government of said Islands, are hereby continued in force, and no timber lands forming part of the public domain shall be sold, leased, or entered until the Government of said Islands, upon the certification of the Forestry Bureau that said lands are more valuable for agriculture than for forest uses, shall declare such lands so certified to be agricultural in character: Provided, That the said Government shall have the right and is hereby empowered to issue licenses to cut, harvest, or collect timber or other forest products on reserved or unreserved public lands in said Islands in accordance with the forest laws and regulations hereinbefore mentioned and under the provisions of this Act, and the said Government may lease land to any person or persons holding such licenses, sufficient for a mill site, not to exceed four hectares in extent, and may grant rights of way to enable such person or persons to get access to the lands to which such licenses apply.
Section 19. That the beneficial use shall be the basis, the measure, and the limit of all rights to water in said Islands, and the Government of said Islands is hereby authorized to make such rules and regulations for the use of water, and to make such reservations of public lands for the protection of the water supply, and for other public purposes not in conflict with the provisions of this Act, as it may deem best for the public good.
Section 20. That in all cases public lands in the Philippine Islands valuable for minerals shall be reserved from sale, except as otherwise expressly directed by law.
Section 21. That all valuable mineral deposits in public lands in the Philippine Islands, both surveyed and unsurveyed, are hereby declared to be free and open to exploration, occupation, and purchase, and the land in which they are found to occupation and purchase, by citizens of the United States, or of said Islands: Provided, That when on any lands in said Islands entered and occupied as agricultural lands under the provisions of this Act, but not patented, mineral deposits have been found, the working of such mineral deposits is hereby forbidden until the person, association, or corporation who or which has entered and is occupying such lands shall have paid to the Government of said Islands such additional sum or sums as will make the total amount paid for the mineral claim or claims in which said deposits are located equal to the amount charged by the Government for the same as mineral claims.
Section 22. That mining claims upon land containing veins or lodes of quartz or other rock in place bearing gold, silver, cinnabar, lead, tin, copper, or other valuable deposits, located after the passage of this Act, whether located by one or more persons qualified to locate the same under the preceding section, shall be located in the following manner and under the following conditions: Any person so qualified desiring to locate a mineral claim shall, subject to the provisions of this Act with respect to land which may be used for mining, enter upon the same and locate a plot of ground measuring, where possible, but not exceeding, one thousand feet in length by one thousand feet in breadth, in as nearly as possible a rectangular form; that is to say: All angles shall be right angles, except in cases where a boundary line of a previously surveyed claim is adopted as common to both claims, but the lines need not necessarily be meridional. In defining the size of a mineral claim, it shall be measured horizontally, irrespective of inequalities of the surface of the ground.
Section 23. That a mineral claim shall be marked by two posts placed as nearly as possible on the line of the ledge or vein, and the posts shall be numbered one and two, and the distance between posts numbered one and two shall not exceed one thousand feet, the line between posts numbered one and two to be known as the location line; and upon posts numbered one and two shall be written the name given to the mineral claim, the name of the locator, and the date of the location. Upon post numbered one there shall be written, in addition to the foregoing, “Initial post,” the approximate compass bearing of post numbered two, and a statement of the number of feet lying to the right and to the left of the line from post numbered one to post numbered two, thus: “Initial post Direction of post numbered two _________ feet of this claim lie on the right and ____________ feet on the left of the line from number one to number two post.” All the particulars required to be put on number one and number two posts shall be furnished by the locator to the provincial secretary, or such other officer as by the Philippine Government may be described as mining recorder, in writing, at the time the claim is recorded, and shall form a part of the record of the sum claim.
Section 24. That when a claim has been located the holder shall immediately mark the line between posts numbered one and two so that it can be distinctly seen. The locator shall also place a post at the point where he has found minerals in place, on which shall be written “Discovery post:” Provided, That when the claim is surveyed the surveyor shall be guided by the records of the claim, the sketch plan on the back of the declaration made by the owner when the claim was recorded, posts numbered one and two, and the notice on number one, initial post.
Section 25.That it shall not be lawful to move number one post, but number two post may be moved by the deputy mineral surveyor when the distance between posts numbered one and two exceeds one thousand feet, in order to place number two post one thousand feet from number one post on the line of location. When the distance between posts numbered one and two is less than one thousand feet the deputy mineral surveyor shall have no authority to extend the claim beyond number two.
Section 26. That the “location line” shall govern the direction of one side of the claim, upon which the survey shall be extended according to this Act.
Section 27. That the holder of a mineral claim shall be entitled to all minerals which may lie within his claim, but he shall not be entitled to mine outside the boundary lines of his claim continued vertically downward: Provided, That this Act shall not prejudice the rights of claim owners nor claim holders whose claims have been located under existing laws prior to this Act.
Section 28. That no mineral claim of the full size shall be recorded without the application being accompanied by an affidavit made by the applicant or some person on his behalf cognizant of the facts — that the legal notices and posts have been put up; that mineral has been found in place on the claim proposed to be recorded; that the ground applied for is unoccupied by any other person. In the said declaration shall be set out the name of the applicant and the date of the location of the claim. The words written on the number one and number two posts shall be set out in full, and as accurate a description as possible of the position of the claim given with reference to some natural object or permanent monuments.
Section 29. That no mineral claim which at the date of its record is known by the locator to be less than a full-sized mineral claim shall be recorded without the word “fraction” being added to the name of the claim, and the application being accompanied by an affidavit or solemn declaration made by applicant or some person on his behalf cognizant of the facts: That the legal posts and notices have been put up; that mineral has been found in place on the fractional claim proposed to be recorded; that the ground applied for is unoccupied by any other person. In the said declaration shall be set out the name of the applicant and the date of the location of the claim. The words written on the posts numbered one and two shall be set out in full, and as accurate a description as possible of the position of the claim given. A sketch plan shall be drawn by the applicant on the back of the declaration, showing as near as may be the position of the adjoining mineral claims and the shape and size, expressed in feet, of the claim or fraction desired to be recorded: Provided, That the failure on the part of the locator of a mineral claim to comply with any of the foregoing provisions of this section shall not be deemed to invalidate such location, if upon the facts it shall appear that such locator has actually discovered mineral in place on said location, and that there has been on his part a bona fide attempt to comply with the provisions of this Act, and that the nonobservance of the formalities hereinbefore referred to is not of a character calculated to mislead other persons desiring to locate claims in the vicinity.
Section 30. That in cases where, from the nature or shape of the ground, it is impossible to mark the location line of the claim as provided by this Act, then the claim may be marked by placing posts as nearly as possible to the location line, and noting the distance and direction such posts may be from such location line, which distance and direction shall be set out in the record of the claim.
Section 31. That every person locating a mineral claim shall record the same with the provincial secretary or such other officer as by the Government of the Philippine Islands may be described as mining recorder of the district within which the same is situated, within thirty days after the location thereof. Such record shall be made in a book to be kept for the purpose in the office of the said provincial secretary or such other officer as by said Government described as mining recorder, in which shall be inserted the name of the claim, the name of each locator, the locality of the mine, the direction of the location line, the length in feet, the date of location, and the date of the record. A claim which shall not have been recorded within the prescribed period shall be deemed to have been abandoned.
Section 32. That in case of any dispute as to the location of a mineral claim the title to the claim shall be recognized according to the priority of such location, subject to any question as to the validity of the record itself and subject to the holder having complied with all the terms and conditions of this Act.
Section 33. That no holder shall be entitled to hold in his, its or their own name or in the name of any other person, corporation or association more than one mineral claim on the same vein or lode.
Section 34. That a holder may at any time abandon any mineral claim by giving notice, in writing, or such intention to abandon, to the provincial secretary or such other officer as by the Government of the Philippine Islands may be described as mining recorder; and from the date of the record of such notice all his interest in such claim shall cease.
Section 35. That proof of citizenship under the clauses of this Act relating to mineral lands may consist in the case of an individual, of his own affidavit thereof; in the case of an association of persons unincorporated, of the affidavit of their authorized agent made on his own knowledge or upon information and belief, and in case of a corporation organized under the laws of the United States, or of any State or Territory thereof, or of the Philippine Islands, by the filing of a certified copy of their charter or certificate of incorporation.
Section 36. That the United States Philippine Commission or its successors may make regulations, not in conflict with the provision of this Act, governing the location, manner of recording, and amount of work necessary to hold possession of a mining claim, subject to the following requirements:On each claim located after the passage of this Act, and until a patent has been issued therefor, not less than one hundred dollars’ worth of labor shall be performed or improvements made during each year: Provided, That upon a failure to comply with these conditions the claim or mine upon which such failure occurred shall be open to relocation in the same manner as if no location of the same had ever been made, provided that the original locators, their heirs, assigns, or legal representatives have not resumed work upon the claim after failure and before such location. Upon the failure of any one of several co-owners to contribute his proportion of the expenditures required thereby, the co-owners who have performed the labor or made the improvements may, at the expiration of the year, give such delinquent co-owner personal notice in writing or notice by publication in the newspaper published nearest the claim, and in two newspapers published at Manila, one in the English language and the other in the Spanish language, to be designated by the Chief of the Philippine Insular Bureau of Public Lands, for at least once a week for ninety days, and, if at the expiration of ninety days after such notice in writing or by publication such delinquent shall fail or refuse to contribute his proportion of the expenditure required by this section his interest in the claim shall become the property of his co-owners who have made the required expenditures. The period within which the work required to be done annually on all unpatented mineral claims shall commence on the first day of January succeeding the date of location of such claim.
Section 37. That a patent for any land claimed and located for valuable mineral deposits may be obtained in the following manner: Any person, association, or corporation authorized to locate a claim under this Act, having claimed and located a piece of land for such purposes, who has or have complied with the terms of this Act may file in the office of the provincial secretary, or such other officer as by the Government of said Islands may be described as mining recorder of the province wherein the land claimed is located, an application for a patent, under oath showing such compliance, together with a plat and field notes of the claim or claims in common, made by or under the direction of the Chief of the Philippine Insular Bureau of Public Lands, showing accurately the boundaries of the claim, which shall be distinctly marked by monuments on the ground, and shall post a copy of such plat, together with a notice of such application for a patent, in a conspicuous place on the land embraced in such plat previous to the filing of the application for a patent, and shall file an affidavit of at least two persons that such notice has been duly posted, and shall file a copy of the notice in such office, and shall thereupon be entitled to a patent for the land, in the manner following: The provincial secretary, or such other officer as by the Philippine Government may be described as mining recorder, upon the filing of such application, plat, field notes, notices, and affidavits, shall publish a notice that such an application has been made, once a week for the period of sixty days, in a newspaper to be by him designated as nearest to such claim and in two newspapers published at Manila, one in the English language and one in the Spanish language, to be designated by the Chief of the Philippine Insular Bureau of Public Lands; and he shall also post such notice in his office for the same period. The claimant at the time of filing this application, or at any time thereafter within the sixty days of publication, shall file with the provincial secretary or such other officer as by the Philippine Government may be described as mining recorder a certificate of the Chief of the Philippine Insular Bureau of Public Lands that five hundred dollars’ worth of labor has been expended or improvements made upon the claim by himself or grantors; that the plat is correct, with such further description by such reference to natural objects or permanent monuments as shall identify the claim, and furnish an accurate description to be incorporated in the patent. At the expiration of the sixty days of publication the claimant shall file his affidavit, showing that the plat and notice have been posted in a conspicuous place on the claim during such period of publication. If no adverse claim shall have been filed with the provincial secretary or such other officer as by the Government of said Islands may be described as mining recorder at the expiration of the sixty days of publication, it shall be assumed that the applicant is entitled to a patent upon the payment to the provincial treasurer or the collector of internal revenue of five dollars per acre and that no adverse claim exists, and thereafter no objection from third parties to the issuance of a patent shall be heard, except it be shown that the applicant has failed to comply with the terms of this Act: Provided, That where the claimant for a patent is not a resident of or within the province wherein the land containing the vein, ledge, or deposit sought to be patented is located, the application for patent and the affidavits required to be made in this section by the claimant for such patent may be made by his, her, or its authorized agent where said agent is conversant with the facts sought to be established by said affidavits.
Section 38. That applicants for mineral patents, if residing beyond the limits of the province or military department wherein the claim is situated, may make the oath or affidavit required for proof of citizenship before the clerk of any court of record, or before any notary public of any province of the Philippine Islands, or any other official in said Islands authorized by law to administer oaths.
Section 39. That where an adverse claim is filed during the period of publication it shall be upon oath of the person or persons making the same, and shall show the nature, boundaries, and extent of such adverse claim, and all proceedings, except the publication of notice and making and filing of the affidavits thereof, shall be stayed until the controversy shall have been settled or decided by a court of competent jurisdiction or the adverse claim waived. It shall be the duty of the adverse claimant, within thirty days after filing his claim, to commence proceedings in a court of competent jurisdiction to determine the question of the right of possession, and prosecute the same with reasonable diligence to final judgment, and a failure so to do shall be a waiver of his adverse claim. After such judgment shall have been rendered the party entitled to the possession of the claim, or any portion thereof, may, without giving further notice, file a certified copy of the judgment roll with the provincial secretary or such other officer as by the Government of the Philippine Islands may be described as mining recorder, together with the certificate of the Chief of the Philippine Insular Bureau of Public Lands that the requisite amount of labor has been expended or improvements made thereon, and the description required in other cases, and shall pay to the provincial treasurer or the collector of internal revenue of the province in which the claim is situated, as the case may be, five dollars per acre for his claim, together with the proper fees, whereupon the whole proceedings and the judgment roll shall be certified by the provincial secretary or such other officer as by said Government may described as mining recorder to the Secretary of the Interior of the Philippine Islands, and a patent shall issue thereon for the claim, or such portion thereof as the applicant shall appear, from the decision of the court, rightly to possess. The adverse claim may be verified by the oath of any duly authorized agent or attorney in fact of the adverse claimant cognizant of the facts stated; and the adverse claimant, if residing or at the time being beyond the limits of the province wherein the claim is situated, may make oath to the adverse claim before the clerk of any court of record, or any notary public of any province or military department of the Philippine Islands, or any other officer authorized to administer oaths where the adverse claimant may then be. If it appears from the decision of the court that several parties are entitled to separate and different portions of the claim, each party may pay for his portion of the claim, with the proper fees, and file the certificate and description by the Chief of the Philippine Insular Bureau of Public Lands, whereupon the provincial secretary or such other officer as by the Government of said Islands may be described as mining recorder shall certify the proceedings and judgment roll to the Secretary of the Interior for the Philippine Islands, as in the preceding case, and patents shall issue to the several parties according to their respective rights. If in any action brought pursuant to this section, title to the ground in controversy shall not be established by either party, the court shall so find, and judgment shall be entered accordingly. In such case costs shall not be allowed to either party, and the claimant shall proceed in the office of the provincial secretary or such other officer as by the Government of said Islands may be described as mining recorder or be entitled to a patent for the ground in controversy until he shall have perfected his title. Nothing herein contained shall be construed to prevent the alienation of a title conveyed by a patent for a mining claim to any person whatever.
Section 40. That the description of mineral claims upon surveyed lands shall designate the location of the claim with reference to the lines of the public surveys, but need not conform therewith; but where a patent shall be issued for claims upon unsurveyed lands, the Chief of the Philippine Insular Bureau of Public Lands in extending the surveys shall adjust the same to the boundaries of such patented claim according to the plat or description thereof, but so as in no case to interfere with or change the location of any patented claim.
Section 41. That any person authorized to enter lands under this Act may enter and obtain patent to lands that are chiefly valuable for building stone under the provisions of this Act relative to placer mineral claims.
Section 42. That any person authorized to enter lands under this Act may enter and obtain patent to lands containing petroleum or other mineral oils and chiefly valuable therefor under the provisions of this Act relative to parcel mineral claims.
Section 43. That no location of a placer claim shall exceed sixty-four hectares for any association of persons, irrespective of the number of persons composing such association, and no such location shall include more than eight hectares for an individual claimant. Such locations shall conform to the laws of the United States Philippine Commission, or its successors, with reference to public surveys, and nothing in this section contained shall defeat or impair any bona fide ownership of land for agricultural purposes or authorize the sale of the improvements of any bona fide settler to any purchase.
Section 44. That where placer claims are located upon surveyed lands and conform to legal subdivisions, further survey or plat shall be required, and all placer mining claims located after the date of passage of this Act shall conform as nearly as practicable to the Philippine system of public-land surveys and the regular subdivision of such surveys; but where placer claims can not be conformed to legal subdivisions, survey and plat shall be made as on unsurveyed lands; and where by the segregation of mineral lands in any legal subdivision a quantity of agricultural land less than sixteen hectares shall remain, such fractional portion of agricultural land may be entered by any party qualified by law for homestead purposes.
Section 45. That where such person or association, they and their grantors have held and worked their claims for a period equal to the time prescribed by the statute of limitations of the Philippine Islands, evidence of such possession and working of the claims for such period shall be sufficient to establish a right to a patent thereto under this Act, in the absence of any adverse claim; but nothing in this Act shall be deemed to impair any lien which may have attached in any way whatever prior to the issuance of a patent.
Section 46. That the Chief of the Philippine Insular Bureau of Public Lands may appoint competent deputy mineral surveyors to survey mining claims. The expenses of the survey of vein or lode claims and of the survey of placer claims, together with the cost of publication of notices, shall be paid by the applicants, and they shall be at liberty to obtain the same at the most reasonable rates, and they shall also be at liberty to employ any such deputy mineral surveyor to make the survey. The Chief of the Philippine Insular Bureau of Public Lands shall also have power to establish the maximum charges for surveys and publication of notices under this Act; and in case of excessive charges for publication he may designate any newspaper published in a province where mines are situated, or in Manila, for the publication of mining notices and fix the rates to be charged by such paper; and to the end that the Chief of the Bureau of Public Lands may be fully informed on the subject such applicant shall file with the provincial secretary, or such other officer as by the Government of the Philippine Islands may be described as mining recorder, a sworn statement of all charges and fees paid by such applicant for publication and surveys, and of all fees and money paid the provincial treasurer or the collector of internal revenue, as the case may be, which statement shall be transmitted, with the other papers in the case, to the Secretary of the Interior for the Philippine Islands.
Section 47. That all affidavits required to be made under this Act may be verified before any officer authorized to administer oaths within the province or military department where the claims may be situated, and all testimony and proofs may be taken before any such officer, and, when duly certified by the officer taking the same, shall have the same force and effect as if taken before the proper provincial secretary or such other officer as by the Government of the Philippine Islands may be described as mining recorder. In cases of contest as to the mineral or agricultural character of land the testimony and proofs may be taken as herein provided on personal notice of at least ten days to the opposing party; or if such party can not be found, then by publication at least once a week for thirty days in a newspaper to be designated by the provincial secretary or such other officer as by said Government may be described as mining recorder published nearest to the location of such land and in two newspapers published in Manila, one in the English language and one in the Spanish language, to be designated by the Chief of the Philippine Insular Bureau of Public Lands; and the provincial secretary or such other officer as by said Government may be described as mining recorder shall require proofs that such notice has been given.
Section 48. That where nonmineral land not contiguous to the vein or lode is used or occupied by the proprietor of such vein or lode for mining or milling purposes, such nonadjacent surface ground may be embraced and included in an application for a patent for such vein or lode, and the same may be patented therewith, subject to the same preliminary requirements as to survey and notice as are applicable to veins or lodes; but no location of such nonadjacent land shall exceed two hectares, and payment for the same must be made at the same rate as fixed by this Act for the superficies of the lode. The owner of a quartz mill or reduction works not owning a mine in connection therewith may also receive a patent for his mill site as provided in this section.
Section 49. That as a condition of sale the Government of the Philippine Islands may provide rules for working, policing, and sanitation of mines, and rules concerning easements, drainage, water rights, right of way, right of Government survey and inspection, and other necessary means to their complete development not inconsistent with the provisions of this Act, and those conditions shall be fully expressed in the patent. The Philippine Commission or its successors are hereby further empowered to fix the bonds of deputy mineral surveyors.
Section 50. That whenever by priority of possession rights to the use of water for mining, agricultural, manufacturing, or other purposes have vested and accrued and the same are recognized and acknowledged by the local customs, laws, and the decisions of courts, the possessors and owners of such vested rights shall be maintained and protected in the same, and the right of way for the construction of ditches and canals for the purposes herein specified is acknowledged and confirmed, but whenever any person, in the construction of any ditch or canal, injures or damages the possession of any settler on the public domain, the party committing such injury or damage shall be liable to the party injured for such injury or damage.
Section 51. That all patents granted shall be subject to any vested and accrued water rights, or rights to ditches and reservoirs used in connection with such water rights as may have been acquired under or recognized by the preceding section.
Section 52. That the Government of the Philippine Islands is authorized to establish land districts and provide for the appointment of the necessary officers wherever they may deem the same necessary for the public convenience, and to further provide that in districts where land offices are established proceedings required by this Act to be had before provincial officers shall be had before the proper officers of such land offices.
Section 53. That every person above the age of twenty-one years, who is a citizen of the United States, or of the Philippine Islands, or who has acquired the rights of a native of said Islands under and by virtue of the treaty of Paris, or any association of persons severally qualified as above, shall, upon application to the proper provincial treasurer, have the right to enter any quality of vacant coal lands of said Islands not otherwise appropriated or reserved by competent authority, not exceeding sixty-four hectares to such individual person, or one hundred and twenty-eight hectares to such association, upon payment to the provincial treasurer or the collector of internal revenue, as the case may be, of not less than twenty-five dollars per hectare for such lands, where the same shall be situated more than fifteen miles from any completed railroad or available harbor or navigable stream, and not less than fifty dollars per hectare for such lands as shall be within fifteen miles of such road, harbor, or stream: Provided, That such entries shall be taken in squares of sixteen or sixty-four hectares, in conformity with the rules and regulations governing the public-land surveys of the said Islands in plotting legal subdivisions.
Section 54. That any person or association of persons, severally qualified as above provided, who have opened and improved, or shall hereafter open and improve, any coal mine or mines upon the public lands, and shall be in actual possession of the same, shall be entitled to a preference right of entry under the preceding section of the mines so opened and improved.
Section 55. That all claims under the preceding section must be presented to the proper provincial secretary within sixty days after the date of actual possession and the commencement of improvements on the land by the filing of a declaratory statement therefor; and where the improvements shall have been made prior to the expiration of three months from the date of the passage of this Act, sixty days from the expiration of such three months shall be allowed for the filing of a declaratory statement; and no sale under the provisions of this Act shall be allowed until the expiration of six months from the date of the passage of this Act.
Section 56. That the three preceding sections shall be held to authorize only one entry by the same person or association of persons; and no association of persons, any member of which shall have taken the benefit of such sections, either as an individual or as a member of any other association, shall enter or hold any other lands under the provisions thereof; and no member of any association which shall have taken the benefit of such section shall enter or hold any other lands under their provisions; and all persons claiming under section fifty-eight shall be required to prove their respective rights and pay for the lands filed upon within one year from the time prescribed for filing their respective claims; and upon failure to file the proper notice or to pay for the land within the required period, the same shall be subject to entry by any other qualified applicant.
Section 57. That in case of conflicting claims upon coal lands where the improvements shall be commenced after the date of the passage of this Act, priority of possession and improvement, followed by proper filing and continued good faith, shall determine the preference right to purchase. And also where improvements have already been made prior to the passage of this Act, division of the land claimed may be made by legal subdivisions, which shall conform as nearly as practicable with the subdivisions of land provided for in this Act, to include as near as may be the valuable improvements of the respective parties. The Government of the Philippine Islands is authorized to issue all needful rules and regulations for carrying into effect the provisions of this and preceding sections relating to mineral lands.
Section 58. That whenever it shall be made to appear to the secretary of any province or the commander of any military department in the Philippine Islands that any lands within the province are saline in character, it shall be the duty of said provincial secretary or commander, under the regulations of the Government of the Philippine Islands, to take testimony in reference to such lands, to ascertain their true character, and to report the same to the Secretary of the Interior for the Philippine Islands; and if, upon such testimony, the Secretary of the Interior shall find that such lands are saline and incapable of being purchased under any of the laws relative to the public domain, then and in such case said lands shall be offered for sale at the office of the provincial secretary or such other officer as by the said Government may be described as mining recorder of the province or department in which the same shall be situated, as the case may be, under such regulations as may be prescribed by said Government and sold to the highest bidder, for cash, at a price of not less than three dollars per hectare; and in case such lands fail to sell when so offered, then the same shall be subject to private sale at such office, for cash, at a price not less than three dollars per hectare, in the same manner as other lands in the said Islands are sold. All executive proclamations relating to the sales of public saline lands shall be published in only two newspapers, one printed in the English language and one in the Spanish language, at Manila, which shall be designated by said Secretary of the Interior.
Section 59. That no Act granting lands to provinces, districts, or municipalities to aid in the construction of roads, or for other public purposes, shall be so construed as to embrace mineral lands, which, in all cases, are reserved exclusively, unless otherwise specially provided in the Act or Acts making the grant.
Section 60. That nothing in this Act shall be construed to affect the rights of any person, partnership, or corporation having a valid, perfected mining concession granted prior to April eleventh, eighteen hundred and ninety-nine, but all such concessions shall be conducted under the provisions of the law in force at the time they were granted, subject at all times to cancellation by reason of illegality in the procedure by which they were obtained, or for failure to comply with the conditions prescribed as requisite to their retention in the laws under which they were granted: Provided, That the owner or owners of every such concession shall cause the corners made by its boundaries to be distinctly marked with permanent monuments within six months after this Act has been promulgated in the Philippine Islands, and that any concessions the boundaries of which are not so marked within this period shall be free and open to exploration and purchase under the provisions of this Act.
Section 61. That mining rights on public lands in the Philippine Islands shall, after the passage of this Act, be acquired only in accordance with its provisions.
Section 62. That all proceedings for the cancellation of perfected Spanish concessions shall be conducted in the courts of the Philippine Islands having jurisdiction of the subject-matter and of the parties, unless the United States Philippine Commission, or its successors, shall create special tribunals for the determination of such controversies.Authority for the Philippine Islands Government to Purchase Lands of Religious Orders and Others and Issue Bonds for Purchase Price.
Section 63. That the Government of the Philippine Islands is hereby authorized, subject to the limitations and conditions prescribed in this Act, to acquire, receive, hold, maintain, and convey title to real and personal property, and may acquire real estate for public uses by the exercise of the right of eminent domain.
Section 64. That the powers hereinbefore conferred in section sixty-three may also be exercised in respect of any lands, easements, appurtenances, and hereditaments which, on the thirteenth of August, eighteen hundred and ninety-eight, were owned or held by associations, corporations, communities, religious orders, or private individuals in such large tracts or parcels and in such manner as in the opinion of the Commission injuriously to affect the peace and welfare of the people of the Philippine Islands. And for the purpose of providing funds to acquire the lands mentioned in this section said Government of the Philippine Islands is hereby empowered to incur indebtedness, to borrow money, and to issue, and to sell at not less than par value, in gold coin of the United States of the present standard value or the equivalent in value in money of said Islands, upon such terms and conditions as it may deem best, registered or coupon bonds of said Government for such amount as may be necessary, said bonds to be in denominations of fifty dollars or any multiple thereof, bearing interest at a rate not exceeding four and a half per centum per annum, payable quarterly, and to be payable at the pleasure of said Government after dates named in said bonds not less than five nor more than thirty years from the date of their issue, together with interest thereon, in gold coin of the United States of the present standard value or the equivalent in value in money of said Islands; and said bonds shall be exempt from the payment of all taxes or duties of said Government, or any local authority therein, or of the Government of the United States, as well as from taxation in any form by or under State, municipal, or local authority in the United States or the Philippine Islands. The moneys which may be realized or received from the issue and sale of said bonds shall be applied by the Government of the Philippine Islands to the acquisition of the property authorized by this section, and to no other purposes.
Section 65. That all lands acquired by virtue of the preceding section shall constitute a part and portion of the public property of the Government of the Philippine Islands, and may be held, sold, and conveyed, or leased temporarily for a period not exceeding three years after their acquisition by said Government on such terms and conditions as it may prescribe, subject to the limitations and conditions provided for in this Act: Provided, That all deferred payments and the interest thereon shall be payable in the money prescribed for the payment of principal and interest of the bonds authorized to be issued in payment of said lands by the preceding section and said deferred payments shall bear interest at the rate borne by the bonds. All moneys realized or received from sales or other disposition of said lands or by reason thereof shall constitute a trust fund for the payment of principal and interest of said bonds, and also constitute a sinking fund for the payment of said bonds at their maturity. Actual settlers and occupants at the time said lands are acquired by the Government shall have the preference over all others to lease, purchase, or acquire their holdings within such reasonable time as may be determined by said Government.
MUNICIPAL BONDS FOR PUBLIC IMPROVEMENTS
Section 66. That for the purpose of providing funds to construct sewers, to furnish adequate sewer and drainage facilities, to secure a sufficient supply of water, and to provide all kinds of municipal betterments and improvements in municipalities, the Government of the Philippine Islands, under such limitations, terms, and conditions as it may prescribe, with the consent and approval of the President and the Congress of the United States, may permit any municipality of said Islands to incur indebtedness, borrow money, and to issue and sell (at not less than par value in gold coin of the United States) registered or coupon bonds in such amount and payable at such time as may be determined by the Government of said Islands, with interest thereon not to exceed five per centum per annum: Provided, That the entire indebtedness of any municipality under this section shall not exceed five per centum of the assessed valuation of the property in said municipality and any obligation in excess of such limit shall be null and void.
Section 67. That all municipal bonds shall be in denominations of fifty dollars, or any multiple thereof, bearing interest at a rate not exceeding five per centum per annum, payable quarterly, such bonds to be payable at the pleasure of the Government of the Philippine Islands, after dates named in said bonds not less than five nor more than thirty years from the date of their issue, together with the interest thereon, in gold coin of the United States of the present standard of value, or its equivalent in value in money of the said Islands: and said bonds shall be exempt from the payment of all taxes or duties of the Government of the Philippine Islands, or any local authority therein, or the Government of the United States.
Section 68. That all moneys which may be realized or received from the issue and sale of said bonds shall be utilized under authorization of the Government of the Philippine Islands in providing the municipal improvements and betterment which induced the issue and sale of said bonds, and for no other purpose.
Section 69. That the Government of the Philippine Islands shall, by the levy and collection of taxes on the municipality, its inhabitants and their property, or by other means, make adequate provision to meet the obligation of the bonds of such municipality, and shall create a sinking fund sufficient to retire them and pay the interest thereon in accordance with the terms of issue: Provided, That if said bonds or any portion thereof shall be paid out of the funds of the Government of said Islands, such municipality shall reimburse said Government for the sum thus paid, and said Government is hereby empowered to collect said sum by the levy and collection of taxes on such municipality.
Section 70. That for the purpose of providing funds to construct sewers in the city of Manila and to furnish it with an adequate sewer and drainage system and supply of water the Government of the Philippine Islands, with the approval of the President of the United States first had, is hereby authorized to permit the city of Manila to incur indebtedness, to borrow money, and to issue and sell (at not less than par value in gold coin of the United States), upon such terms and conditions as it may deem best, registered or coupon bonds of the city of Manila to an amount not exceeding four million dollars, lawful money of the United States, payable at such time or times as may be determined by said Government, with interest thereon not to exceed five per centum per annum.
Section 71. That said coupon or registered bonds shall be in denominations of fifty dollars or any multiple thereof, bearing interest at a rate not exceeding five per centum per annum, payable quarterly, such bonds to be payable at the pleasure of the Government of the Philippine Islands, after dates named in said bonds not less than five nor more than thirty years from the date of their issue, together with the interest thereon in gold coin of the United States of the present standard value, or the equivalent in value in money of the said Islands; and said bonds shall be exempt from the payment of all taxes or duties of the Government of the said Islands, or of any local authority therein, or of the Government of the United States.
Section 72. That all moneys which may be realized or received from the issue and sale of said bonds shall be utilized under authorization of said Government of the Philippine Islands in providing a suitable sewer and drainage system and adequate supply of water for the city of Manila and for no other purpose.
Section 73. That the Government of the Philippine Islands shall, by the levy and collection of taxes on the city of Manila, its inhabitants and their property, or by other means, make adequate provision to meet the obligation of said bonds and shall create a sinking fund sufficient to retire them and pay the interest thereon in accordance with the terms of issue: Provided, That if said bonds or any portion thereof shall be paid out of the funds of the Government of said Islands, said city shall reimburse said Government for the sum thus paid, and said Government is hereby empowered to collect said sum by the levy and collection of taxes on said city.
Section 74. That the Government of the Philippine Islands may grant franchises; privileges, and concessions, including the authority to exercise the right of eminent domain for the construction and operation of works of public utility and service, and may authorize said works to be constructed and maintained over and across the public property of the United States, including streets, highways, squares, and reservations, and over similar property of the Government of said Islands, and may adopt rules and regulations under which the provincial and municipal governments of the Islands may grant the right to use and occupy such public property belonging to said provinces or municipalities: Provided, That no private property shall be taken for any purpose under this section without just compensation paid or tendered therefor, and that such authority to take and occupy land shall not authorize the taking, use, or occupation of any land except such as is required for the actual necessary purposes for which the franchise is granted, and that no franchise, privilege, or concession shall be granted to any corporation except under the conditions that it shall be subject to amendment, alteration, or repeal by the Congress of the United States, and that lands or rights of use and occupation of lands thus granted shall revert to the Governments by which they were respectively granted upon the termination of the franchises and concession under which they were granted or upon their revocation or repeal. That all franchises, privileges, or concessions granted under this Act shall forbid the issue of stock or bonds except in exchange for actual cash, or for property at a fair valuation, equal to the par value of the stock or bonds so issued; shall forbid the declaring of stock or bond dividends, and, in the case of public-service corporations, shall provide for the effective regulation of the charges thereof, for the official inspection and regulation of the books and accounts of such corporations, and for the payment of a reasonable percentage of gross earnings into the Treasury of the Philippine Islands or of the province or municipality within which such franchises are granted and exercised: Provided further, That it shall be unlawful for any corporation organized under this Act, or for any person, company, or corporation receiving any grant, franchise, or concession from the Government of said Islands, to use, employ, or contract for the labor of persons claimed or alleged to be held in involuntary servitude; and any person, company, or corporation so violating the provisions of this Act shall forfeit all charters, grants, franchises, and concessions for doing business in said Islands, and in addition shall be deemed guilty of an offense, and shall be punished by a fine of not less than ten thousand dollars.