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Chapter 1 General Principles

  1. Democratic and Republican State
  2. Suffrage
  3. Election

a. Will of the Electorate

b. Liberal Construction of Election Laws

c. Liberal Interpretation of Rules of Procedure

d. Ballots Presumed to be Valid

e. Monopolization of Political Power

f. Fair Election Act

4. Initiative and Referendum

a. People’s Initiative; Constitutional Requirements

b. People’s Initiative; Logrolling

c. People’s Initiative; Full Text of Proposed Amendment

d. People’s Initiative; Amendment and Revision

e. People’s Initiative; Quantitative and Qualitative Tests

5. Plebiscite

6. Recall

7. Legislative Districts

a. Apportionment and Reapportionment of Legislative District

b. Apportionment of Legislative District; Gerrymandering

8. Constitutional Rights

a. Due Process

b. Equal Protection Clause; “Deemed Resigned” Provision

c. Right to Run for Public Office

d. Right to Information

e. Protected Expression

9. Doctrines

a. Moot and Academic

a.1 Exceptions

b. Estoppel By Laches

Chapter 2 Election of Public Officials

1.  Registration of Voters

a. Application for Registration

b. Cancellation of Registration

c. Continuing Registration

d. Qualified Elector

e.  Voters’ Inclusion/Exclusion vis-à-vis COC Denial/Cancellation

f. Disenfranchisement of Voters

2. Certificate of Candidacy (COC)

a. “Candidate” Defined

b. COC Requirements

c. Withdrawal and Substitution

d. Misrepresentation in COC

3. Political Parties

a. Registration and Accreditation

b. Party Membership and Discipline

4. Election Campaign

a. Partisan Political Activities

b. Prohibition on Appointments

5. National and Local Elections

a. Election of President and Vice President

b. Synchronization of National and Local Elections

c. Local Government and ARMM

d. Appointment of OICs

e. Vacancy in the Sanguniang Bayan

6. Casting and Counting of Votes

a. Polling Precincts

b. Poll Watchers

c. Assistors

d. Absentee Voting

7. Appreciation of Ballots

a. Objective of Ballot Appreciation

b. Ballot Appreciation: A Question of Fact

b.1. When Judicial Review Allowed

c. Rules on Appreciation of Ballots

c.1. Marked Ballots

c.2. WBT (Each Ballot Written by Two)

c.3. WBO (Groups of Ballots Written by One)

c.4. Stray Ballots/Votes

c.5. Idem Sonans

c.6. Intent Rule

c.7. Neighborhood Rule

8. Election Returns

a. Board of Election Inspectors

b. “Election Returns and Qualifications” Defined

c. “Result of Election”; Meaning

d. Election Returns; Presumption of Regularity

e. Spurious Election Returns

f. Tampered Election Returns

g. Contested/Uncontested Election Returns

h. Incomplete Election Returns

i. Inclusion/Exclusion of Election Returns

j. Election Returns and Certificate of Votes

k. Election Returns and Statement of Votes

l. Piercing the Veil of Returns

9. Canvass and Proclamation

a. Election Returns Certified by BEI

b. Incomplete Canvass of Votes

c. Doctrine of Statistical Improbability

d. Municipal Board of Canvassers

e. Provincial Board of Canvassers

f. Null and Void Proclamation

g. Drawing of Lots

Chapter 3 Party List System 

  1. The Constitution and R.A. No. 7941
  2. “Party-List System” Defined
  3. Party List Representatives
  4. Party List Registration
  5. Party-List Nominee
  6. Votes for Party-List
  7. Allocation of Seats

Chapter 4 Automated Election System

  1. “Automated Election System” Defined
  2. Pertinent Legislations on AES
  3. AES and PCOS
  4. AES Pilot Testing
  5. Automation of the May 2010 Elections
  6. Source Code

a. Definition

b. Duty to Disclose

Chapter 5 Commission on Elections

1. Constitutional Mandate

a. Broad Powers

b. Administrative, Legislative, Quasi-Judicial Powers

c. Residual Powers

d. Presumption of Regularity

e. Authority of COMELEC Chairman

f. COMELEC Code of Conduct

2. Administrative Powers

a. Enforce and Administer Election Laws

a.1. Ensure Free, Orderly, Honest, Peaceful and Credible Elections

a.2. Supervise the Conduct of Elections

a.3. Supervise the Conduct of Plebiscite

b. Decide All Questions Affecting Elections

b.1. Control and Supervision over BEI and BOC

b.2. Correction in the Statement of Votes

c. Deputize Government Agencies and Instrumentalities

c.1. Deputation of Law Enforcement Agencies

c.2. Deputation of the Provincial and City Prosecutors

d. Register Political Parties

d.1. Ascertain Identity of Political Party

d.2. Assess Qualifications for Registration

d.3. Cancellation of Registration

d.4. Intra-Party Dispute

e. Investigate and Prosecute Election Offenses

e.1. Finding of Probable Cause

f. Supervise or Regulate the Enjoyment or Utilization of Franchises

3. Quasi-Legislative Powers

a. Authority to Promulgate Own Rules

a.1. COMELEC Rules of Procedure Construed Liberally

a.2. COMELEC Rules of Procedure May Be Suspended

a.3. COMELEC Rules of Procedure; Retroactive Application

a.4. Violation of COMELEC Rules of Procedure

4. Quasi-Judicial or Adjudicatory Powers

a. Election Cases

a.1. Rule on Adherence of Jurisdiction

b. Pre-Proclamation Cases

c. Other cases

c.1. Deny Due Course to a COC and cancellation of COC

c.2. Annul Proclamation

c.3. Suspension of Proclamation

c.4. Correction of Manifest Errors

c.5. Declare Failure of Elections

c.6. Call a Special Election

d. COMELEC Proceedings

d.1. Intervention

d.2. Inhibition

d.3. Consolidation of Cases

d.4. Contempt

e. COMELEC Decision

e.1. Majority Vote

e.2. Equally Divided Vote

e.3. Finality of Decision

e.4. Promulgation

e.5. Judgment; Prescribed Period

f. Motion for Reconsideration

f.1. Final Order vis-à-vis Interlocutory Order

f.2. Resolutions of a Division vis-à-vis Resolutions of the En Banc 

f.3. Period to File

Chapter 6 Electoral Tribunals

  1. The 1987 Constitution
  2. The Presidential Electoral Tribunal
  3. The Senate Electoral Tribunal
  4. The House of Representative Electoral Tribunal

a. Composition of HRET

b. Jurisdiction of HRET

c. HRET and Party-List

d. Incidental Powers of HRET

e. HRET Rules of Procedure

5. Jurisdiction of the Tribunal vis-à-vis the COMELEC

6. Judicial Review

Chapter 7 Qualifications and Disqualifications

  1. Public Office as a Privilege Subject to Limitations
  2. Qualifications of Elective Constitutional Officials

a. President and Vice President

b. Senators and Members of the House of Representatives

3. Qualifications of Elective Local Officials